Since volatility is non-linear, realized variance is first calculated by converting returns from a stock/asset to logarithmic values and measuring the standard deviation of log normal returns. The formula of Realized volatility is the square root of realized variance.

What is the variance of return?

Let’s start with a translation in English: The variance of historical returns is equal to the sum of squared deviations of returns from the average (R) divided by the number of observations (n) minus 1. (The large Greek letter sigma is the mathematical notation for a sum.)

How do we calculate the variance of the expected return?

Variance is calculated by calculating an expected return and summing a weighted average of the squared deviations from the mean return.

What is the standard deviation of Amazon?

On average, Amazon shares have traded at a one-year price-to-sales ratio of roughly 2 since the start of 2015, with a standard deviation of approximately 0.34. That puts the valuation in a range of 1.67 to 2.35 times one-year forward sales estimates.

What is the meaning of Realised variance?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Realized variance or realised variance (RV, see spelling differences) is the sum of squared returns. For instance the RV can be the sum of squared daily returns for a particular month, which would yield a measure of price variation over this month.

What is realized kernel?

The realized kernel (RK) is an estimator of volatility. The estimator is typically computed with high frequency return data, such as second-by-second returns.

What is variance in risk and return?

Variance is a measurement of the degree of risk in an investment. Financial professionals determine variance by calculating the average of the squared deviations from the mean rate of return. Standard deviation can then be found by calculating the square root of the variance.

What is realized return?

Realized return. The return that is actually earned over a given time period.

What is Amazon’s return rate?

The average return rate on Amazon ranges between 5% to 15%, but the return rate for some categories, including consumer electronics and clothing, can get as high as 40%. For sellers, Amazon’s lenient return policy can be a huge saboteur to their ability to be profitable on the platform.

Is Amazon riskier than the market?

Amazon Inc has a volatility of 1.52 and is 2.2 times more volatile than DOW. 13 of all equities and portfolios are less risky than Amazon. As returns on the market increase, Amazon returns are expected to increase less than the market.

Which is an example of the realized variance?

For instance the RV can be the sum of squared daily returns for a particular month, which would yield a measure of price variation over this month. More commonly, the realized variance is computed as the sum of squared intraday returns for a particular day.

Do you have to explain why you are returning something to Amazon?

Yes, you need to state a reason. It could be you just don’t need or want the item and that answer is perfectly acceptable. You’ll be asked if it’s broken or the wrong item, but you’re under no obligation to answer. Does Amazon Limit Your Returns?

How can I Make my Amazon return more convenient?

Amazon has a few tricks up its sleeve for making returns more convenient. (In all of these cases, you’ll receive a prepaid shipping label and unless you qualify for free returns, the shipping fee is taken out of your refund amount.) Download the KCL appto see our best Amazon deals.

How long does it take to return an Amazon order?

To make a return, go to the Amazon Return Center or start from your past orders. Generally, you’ll have 30 days to return your Amazon items. I say “generally” because Amazon plays Santa Claus during the holiday season and gives us all a longer return window.