Other How does maternal anemia affect fetus?

How does maternal anemia affect fetus?

How does maternal anemia affect fetus?

How does iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy affect the baby? Severe anemia during pregnancy increases your risk of premature birth, having a low birth weight baby and postpartum depression. Some studies also show an increased risk of infant death immediately before or after birth.

What is the cause of physiologic anemia during pregnancy?

Physiological adaptation in pregnancy leads to physiological anemia of pregnancy. This is because the plasma volume expansion is greater than red blood cell (RBC) mass increase which causes hemodilution. Normal pregnancy increases iron requirement by 2–3 fold and folate requirement by 10–20 fold.

Is Macrocytic anemia common in pregnancy?

In summary, macrocytic anemia is an important cause of severe anemia during pregnancy contributing to 40% of cases in this study. It causes significant maternal and fetal morbidity. The prevalence and problems of macrocytic anemia are much higher in pregnant women than initially thought.

Are intravenous iron infusions safe during pregnancy?

Infusions are often preferred over oral iron supplements because taking it by mouth can cause gastrointestinal side effects. However, iron infusions are usually reserved for the second or third trimester of pregnancy. It’s not yet known if it is safe to administer iron infusions during the first trimester.

What happens if iron is too low during pregnancy?

When iron levels are low, the red blood cells are unable to carry oxygen to the body’s tissues. Although it is normal to experience mild anemia during pregnancy due to increased blood volume, severe anemia may put you and your baby at risk of premature delivery and low birth weight.

What should a pregnant woman with anemia avoid?

Preventing Anemia

  • Eat iron-rich foods such as meat, chicken, fish, eggs, dried beans and fortified grains.
  • Eat foods high in folic acid, such as dried beans, dark green leafy vegetables, wheat germ and orange juice.
  • Eat foods high in vitamin C, such as citrus fruits and fresh, raw vegetables.

How is anemia treated in pregnancy?

Treatment for anemia during pregnancy Anemia during pregnancy can easily be treated by adding iron or vitamin supplements to your daily routine. Typically, this is all that is needed to reverse the effects of anemia. However, in very rare cases, women with severe anemia may need a blood transfusion.

What is considered severe anemia during pregnancy?

Severe anemia in pregnancy (Hb <7 g/dL) requires urgent medical treatment and Hb <4 g/dL is an emergency carrying a risk of congestive cardiac failure, sepsis and death.

Which iron infusion is best for pregnancy?

The three preparations of IV iron that have been evaluated for use in pregnancy include: LMW iron dextran (ID, INFED), iron sucrose (IS, VENOFER), and ferric carboxymaltose (FCM, INJECTAFER). All show similar efficacy and very low risk of serious adverse events (SAEs).

What are the early symptoms of anemia in pregnancy?

Early symptoms of anemia are usually nonexistent or nonspecific (eg, fatigue, weakness, light-headedness, mild dyspnea during exertion). Other symptoms and signs may include pallor and, if anemia is severe, tachycardia or hypotension.

How is iron deficiency anemia treated during pregnancy?

Diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy and the postpartum period: Iron deficiency anemia working group consensus report According to the World Health Organization (WHO), anemia is the most common disease, affecting >1.5 billion people worldwide.

When to suspect folate deficiency in pregnant women?

Deficiency occurs in 0.5 to 1.5% of pregnant women; megaloblastic macrocytic anemia is present if deficiency is moderate or severe. Rarely, severe anemia and glossitis occur. Folate deficiency is suspected if CBC shows anemia with macrocytic indices or high RBC distribution width (RDW).

When to use a transfusion for anemia during pregnancy?

Treatment of anemia during pregnancy is directed at reversing the anemia (see below). Transfusion is usually indicated for any anemia if severe constitutional symptoms (eg, light-headedness, weakness, fatigue) or cardiopulmonary symptoms or signs (eg, dyspnea, tachycardia, tachypnea) are present; the decision is not based on the Hct.