1 Completely encapsulated tumor, without tumor invasion into the capsule
1 Stage 3 thymoma (III)
1 Tumor invasion into organs surrounding the thymus
1 Stage 4A thymoma (IVA)
1 Tumor implants in the pleura or pericardium (the linings of the lungs or heart)
What is early stage thymoma?
Early stage thymomas are rare, indolent tumors of the thymus gland. Thymomas may develop at any age, but are most common between the ages of 35 and 70. Distribution between genders tends to be fairly equal, with a slight female predominance in older age groups.
What is Stage 4 thymus cancer?
Stage IV. Stage IV is divided into stage IVA and stage IVB, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IVA, cancer has spread widely around the lungs or heart. In stage IVB, cancer has spread to the blood or lymph system.
What is a Masaoka stage IIa thymoma?
Microscopic invasion into surrounding fat is stage IIa in the Koga system and IIb in the Masaoka system. • The Koga system includes an explicit mention of “adherence to without breaking through the mediastinal pleura or pericardium.”
How serious is a thymoma?
Most thymomas have the potential to behave like a cancer and spread beyond the thymus, but many appear to behave in a benign fashion and are noninvasive. Less commonly, it appears to have spread beyond the thymus. People sometimes refer to such an invasive thymoma as malignant thymoma.
Can thymoma be cured?
Most people with operable thymoma are cured with either surgery alone or surgery followed by radiotherapy.
What causes a thymoma tumor?
The exact cause of thymomas is unknown. Thymomas are equally common in men and in women and are most frequently seen in the fourth and fifth decades of life. There are no known risk factors that predispose a person to developing thymoma.
Is Stage 4 thymoma cancer curable?
In a German study of patients whose thymomas were completely removed by surgery, only 3% of the tumors recurred. Even 83% of patients with stage 3 thymoma were alive 10 years after diagnosis. The 10-year survival rate for stage 4 thymoma is approximately 47%.
Can you survive thymoma cancer?
If the thymic cancer is located only in the thymus, the 5-year survival rate is 92%. If the cancer has spread to surrounding tissues or organs and/or the regional lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is 77%. If the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body, the 5-year survival rate is 31%.
What is considered a large thymoma?
Surgeons and physicians should perform preoperative thorough check-ups for thymoma patients if thymoma size is larger than 50 mm, especially as large as 90 mm.
Does a thymoma have to be removed?
When the tumor is able to be completely removed during surgery, this is generally the best treatment option. For early stages of thymoma this is often the only treatment needed. When the cancer has progressed to a later stage, surgery may be used to remove as much of the tumor as possible.
Where does thymoma spread to?
Thymomas are generally slow-growing tumors. Occasionally, it can spread to the lining of the lung, called the pleura. Less often, it can spread to other parts of the body. Thymic carcinoma (see Stages) also starts in the thymus.
What are the different stages of thymic carcinoma?
Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma: Stages and Classification. Stage III: The cancer has spread to other organs near the thymus, such as the lung, blood vessels, and the sac around the heart, called the pericardium. Stage IVA: The cancer has spread more extensively into the lining of the lung or the sac around the heart.
What’s the prognosis of a stage 1 thymoma tumor?
The prognosis (outcome) for thymoma is dependent upon the stage of the tumor as well as the ability to remove the tumor by surgery. Thymic carcinomas tend to behave more aggressively and have a worse prognosis than thymomas. Thymomas tend to be slow-growing tumors, and the prognosis is good to excellent for those with stage 1 or stage 2 thymoma.
Can a recurrent thymoma and Thymic carcinoma recur?
Recurrent thymoma and thymic carcinoma is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the thymus or in other parts of the body. Thymic carcinomas commonly recur. Thymomas may recur after a long time. There is also an increased risk of having another type of cancer after having a thymoma.
How many people are affected by a thymoma tumor?
The term thymoma refers to tumors of the thymus that grow slowly and usually do not spread beyond the thymus. Thymic carcinomas are tumors of the thymus that grow aggressively and may metastasize to distant organs. Less than one person per 1.5 million people will develop a thymoma.