Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, (NAIT) is caused by maternal antibodies raised against alloantigens carried on fetal platelets. Although many cases are mild, NAIT is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in newborns and is the most common cause of intracranial haemorrhage in full-term infants.
How common is neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia?
Although it is a rare condition, it is the most common cause of severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count less than 50,000/μL), in the fetal and neonatal period and the most common cause of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in term infants. The reported incidence of NAIT is one in 1,000–1,500 live births.
What type of platelets may be given in cases of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia?
There are other platelet antigen systems found in humans that are associated with Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia, including HPA-3, HPA-4 (present in people of Asian descent), HPA-5, HPA-9 and HPA-15.
Is neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia a rare disease?
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) is a blood disorder that affects pregnant women and their babies. NAIT was first reported in the literature in 1953 and is estimated to occur in as many as 1 in 1200 live births.
How common is neonatal thrombocytopenia?
At birth. Thrombocytopenia is present in 1–5% of newborns at birth,7–9 and severe thrombocytopenia (platelets < 50 × 109/l) occurs in 0.1–0.5%.
What kind of antibody causes neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia?
A number of different proteins can cause NAIT, about 80% of cases are caused by antibodies against platelet antigen HPA-1a, 15% by anti- HPA-5b, and 5% by other antibodies (e.g. HPA-1b, HPA-15, HPA-3 and HPA-9b).
What is the correct code for neonatal thrombocytopenia due to exchange transfusion?
What is the most common cause of neonatal thrombocytopenia?
Preterm infants are more likely to have thrombocytopenia due to placental insufficiency, perinatal asphyxia, congenital infections (eg, cytomegalovirus [CMV]), or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) associated with systemic diseases (eg, sepsis or NEC).
When was fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia first reported?
Summary Summary. Listen. Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) is a blood disorder that affects pregnant women and their babies. NAIT was first reported in the literature in 1953 and is estimated to occur in as many as 1 in 1200 live births.
What to do for fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia?
Bleeding episodes can occur either during pregnancy or after birth. Management of the infant with neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia may include platelet transfusions, ultrasounds, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Treatment for pregnant mothers at risk for NAIT may include IVIG and steroids.
What kind of bleeding disorder is neonatal alloimmune?
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAT) is a life-threatening bleeding disorder caused by maternal platelet antibodies produced in response to fetal platelet antigens inherited from the father.
How is HPA-1 related to fetal thrombocytopenia?
In susceptible pregnant women, this interaction could result in an immune response to HPA-1, leading to the development of alloantibodies that cross the placenta and produce fetal thrombocytopenia. This reaction to first trimester trophoblasts could explain how FMAIT can present clinically during the first incompatible pregnancy.