Organification is a biochemical process that takes place in thyroid gland. It is the incorporation of iodine into thyroglobulin for the production of thyroid hormone, a step done after the oxidation of iodide by the enzyme thyroid peroxidase (TPO).
How is thyroglobulin produced?
Thyroglobulin is synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum as single polypeptide chains of approximately 300,000 Da. The nascent protein is transported to the Golgi, where the carbohydrate chains are completed. It then migrates to the apical membrane of the thyroid cell.
Is the biosynthesis of thyroid hormone under Tonic control?
Thyroid hormone biosynthesis is under the tonic control of thyrotropin (TSH), while the iodide recycling ability is very important for normal thyroid function. We discuss herein the biochemical aspects of TH biosynthesis and release, highlighting the novel molecules involved in the process.
How is nodular transformation related to thyroid hormone synthesis?
In contrast, nodular transformation, as outlined below, is very likely an indirect effect linked to the cosubstrate in thyroid hormone synthesis, H 2 O 2, and its oxidative consequences. Figure 57.1. The essence of thyroid hormone synthesis.
Where does biosynthesis of thyroid hormone take place?
Thyroid hormone biosynthesis occurs at the apical surface of polarized thyroid follicular cells and requires an intact synthesis pathway comprising transporter molecules, enzymes and thyroglobulin as well as adequate dietary iodide ( Fig. 2 ).
How are antioxidants related to thyroid hormone synthesis?
It has been shown that antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidases (GPxs) or TPO, are upregulated during thyroid hormone synthesis ( Howie et al., 1998 ). Moreover, GPx3 has been suggested to interfere directly with thyroid hormone synthesis by affecting the concentration of H 2 O 2 ( Howie et al., 1995 ).