Steady-state operation: Under steady-state, the values of all variables associated with the process do not change with time. That is, at any given location in the process, the values of temperature, pressure, composition, flow rates, etc. are independent of time.

What is material balance principle?

Material balance is based on the mass conservation principle which states that the sum of the weight of all inputs must be exactly equal to the sum of all outputs. For example, material balances across a geographical level aid to monitor the physical flows of materials across regional boundaries.

What are the types of material balance?

9.4. Two types of material balance errors are considered: local and global. Local material balance error is the error in the material balance calculation for each gridblock over a time step. The sum of all local material balance errors gives the global material balance error.

What is heat and material balance?

Heat and Material Balance (H&MB) is one of the basic process engineering documents produced by process design engineers in which energy and material output from a system that equals energy input. A H&MB may be included as part of a PFD or a separate document, particularly when several operating cases are evaluated.

What is material balance purpose?

Material balances are typically used to describe how much material is available for each species, using variables such as the numbers of moles or the concentrations, while a heat balance is used to describe how much thermal energy is available, using variables such as the heat or the temperature.

What is the difference between mass balance and material balance?

A mass balance, also called a material balance, is an application of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems. By accounting for material entering and leaving a system, mass flows can be identified which might have been unknown, or difficult to measure without this technique.

Why is material balance important?

Material balances are important first step when designing a new process or analyzing an existing one. Thus, material balances are often compared to the balancing of current accounts. They are used in industry to calculate mass flow rates of different streams entering or leaving chemical or physical processes.

What is heat material balance?

Why is it important to understand steady state pharmacokinetics?

Steady state pharmacokinetics are important for chronically administered drug products. Understanding the basic concept that a drug reaches steady state once the rate of drug input and elimination are equivalent helps simplify the concept of steady state.

How are PK parameters related to steady state kinetics?

There are several special PK parameters associated with steady state kinetics. These parameters are not necessarily more important; however, they are useful because of the unique situation when drug input rate and elimination rate are equivalent. The first is the average plasma concentration at steady state, or C ss.

What is the governing mass balance equation at steady state?

At steady state, the governing mass balance equation would be the following: More generally, we have the following relationships. In the general case, the expression for the material balance on a species A that is part of a mixture is or … Note that the above equations should be written for one species at a time.

Which is the correct equation for the material balance equation?

General Material Balance Equation input + generation – output – consumption = accumulation(0) Input: enters through system boundaries Generation: is produced within the system Output: exits through system boundaries Consumption: is used up within the system