Blog What does the light chain of an antibody do?

What does the light chain of an antibody do?

What does the light chain of an antibody do?

The Ig-light (IgL) chains ensure the expression and secretion of functional antibodies and contribute to antigen binding by increasing the variability of the antibodies.

What does free light chains in urine mean?

Light-chain proteins may manifest in the urine because of the following: Asymptomatic light-chain proteinuria. Proximal tubular dysfunction (ie, Fanconi syndrome) Chronic kidney disease or acute kidney injury.

What is immunoglobulin diversity?

The diversity of the immunoglobulin repertoire is generated by four main processes. The multiple inherited gene segments are used in different combinations. Variable addition and subtraction of nucleotides at the junctions between gene segments contributes to diversity in the third hypervariable region.

What causes immunoglobulin diversity?

The sources of antibody diversity include the presence of multiple V gene segments, combinatorial diversity resulting from random recombination of V, D, and J segments, diversity due to insertion of nucleotides which result in amino acid changes in the V-D and D-J junctions, and the coexpression of different heavy and …

How long can you live with light chain disease?

Median survival for patients with light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) is about 4 years. The largest series published so far has reported after a median follow-up of 27 months; 57% of patients developed uremia and 59% of patients died.

What makes up the chains of an immunoglobulin molecule?

Immunoglobulin molecules are composed of two types of protein chain: heavy chains and light chains. Each immunoglobulin molecule is made up of two heavy chains (green) and two light chains (yellow) joined by disulfide bonds so that each heavy chain is (more…)

How is diversity added to a B cell?

Generation of B-cell / antibody diversity. Further diversity is added to the variable region genes by an enzyme called terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase ( TdT) that adds extra nucleotides between the V, D and J regions, changing the structure of the variable regions that will be produced.

Which is the most abundant immunoglobulin in humans?

IgG is by far the most abundant immunoglobulin and has several subclasses (IgG1, 2, 3, and 4 in humans). Their distinctive functional properties are conferred by the carboxy-terminal part of the heavy chain, where it is not associated with the light chain.