Fatty Acid and Phospholipid Biosynthesis in Prokaryotes The 27.6 kDa enzyme phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase (or CDP-diacylglycerol synthase) catalyses the conversion of phosphatidic acid to a mixture of CDP-diacylglycerol and dCDP-diacylglycerol.
Which is involved in the synthesis of phospholipids?
The first step in the synthesis of both phospholipids for membranes and triacylglycerols for energy storage is the synthesis of phosphatidate (diacylglycerol 3-phosphate). In mammalian cells, phosphatidate is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and the outer mitochondrial membrane.
Why is CTP used in phospholipid synthesis?
The CTP synthetase reaction product CTP plays an essential role in the synthesis of all membrane phospholipids in S. CTP is the direct precursor of the activated, energy-rich phospholipid pathway intermediates CDP-diacylglycerol , CDP-choline , and CDP-ethanolamine  (Fig. 2).
What enzymes break down phospholipids?
Phospholipases are enzymes that degrade phospholipids through hydrolytic cleavage of carboxy- and phospho-diester bonds.
Where does synthesis of phospholipids occur?
Phospholipid synthesis occurs in the cytosolic side of ER membrane that is studded with proteins that act in synthesis (GPAT and LPAAT acyl transferases, phosphatase and choline phosphotransferase) and allocation (flippase and floppase).
What are the two metabolic pathways needed to synthesize phospholipids?
The major phospholipid of the LD surface, phosphatidylcholine, can be synthesized by three different pathways: the de-novo pathway, which is also known as Kennedy pathway, the Lands cycle and the phosphatidylethanolamine methyl transferase (PEMT) pathway, which is restricted to liver cells .
What catalyzes phospholipid synthesis?
Phospholipid biosynthesis is linked to glycolysis through the use of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), formed from sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro-3-P) via its reduction by NADH, catalyzed by glycerophosphate dehydrogenase.
What are the two types of phospholipid?
Phospholipids are an important class of membrane lipids that contain two categories of lipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids.
Where does PA play a role in phospholipid synthesis?
It plays a central role in phospholipid synthesis as the precursor of all phospholipids synthesized via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP)–diacylglycerol (DAG), CDP–choline, and CDP–ethanolamine pathways (Figure 2 ). In the CDP–DAG pathway, PA is converted to CDP–DAG, which is then utilized for the synthesis of PS, PE, and PC.
Which is a rate limiting reaction in phosphaolipid biosynthesis?
Phosphatidic acid synthesis begins with the addition of a fatty acyl-CoA, usually saturated, to glycerol 3-phosphate at the sn -1 position to produce lysophosphatidic acid. This reaction is catalyzed by glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase and is rate limiting for phosphatidic acid synthesis.
How is phospholipid biosynthesis linked to glycolysis?
Phospholipid biosynthesis is linked to glycolysis through the use of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), formed from sn -glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro-3-P) via its reduction by NADH, catalyzed by glycerophosphate dehydrogenase.
What are enzymes that synthesize glycerophospholipids in the membrane?
Enzymes that synthesize unique glycerophospholipids, called plasmalogens, are included.